Who is ISIS leader, Meaning, Formation, History | ISIS and India relations

ISIS full form

isis full form
ISIS/ ISIL logo 

ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria), or ISIL (the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant) has the black flag with the words La ‘ilaha ‘illa-Allah means “There is no God but God”. Underneath is a white circle emblazoned with black writing reading "Mohammed is the messenger of God".

History of ISIS

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant have taken over about a third of Iraq. They're called ISIS for short, but it's easier to understand what they are if you know them by their old name, al-Qaeda in Iraq. 

They were a key part of the insurgency after America's 2003 invasion toppled Saddam Hussein. And at the time, they had a lot of support from the country's minority Sunnis. They held a lot of territories because Sunnis were furious, both at the Americans who had kicked Saddam Hussein out of power, and the Shias who had taken over the government. 

But al-Qaeda in Iraq had big ambitions. They didn't just want to kick America out. They wanted to set up an Islamic state. So they banned music, and they banned smoking. Women couldn't show their hair and they began beheading civilians who disobeyed their rules. 

Lost of support of Iraqi Sunnis

Starting in 2006, their brutality lost them the support of Iraqi Sunnis, who partnered with US forces to help push al-Qaeda in Iraq out of the country. America takes a lot of credit for this. We call it the surge. We're very proud of it and we should be, but the big thing we did in the surge was we helped the Sunnis, Sons of Iraq, as they called themselves, rise up against al-Qaeda in Iraq's savage theocratic rule. So al-Qaeda in Iraq was defeated, but they weren't destroyed. 

They were driven out of much of the territory they used to control, and then they began rebuilding. In particular, they became heavily involved in the fighting in Syria. They were trying to overthrow the Shiite Assad regime. Their tactics in Syria were so brutal and their ambitions were so grand that al-Qaeda itself actually cut ties with them. 

Al-Qaeda thought al-Qaeda in Iraq was bad for the al-Qaeda brand. After their split with al-Qaeda in February 2014, they renamed themselves ISIS and began setting up extortion rackets from Syria. They took over part of the oil industry. They sold electricity back to the Syrian government that they were fighting. 

Also, read What is Salafism in Islam ??

Meanwhile in Iraq, Prime Minister Malaki had been ruling on sectarian lines. Maliki is a Shiite and he was empowering Shias. He was violently breaking up Sunni protests. He was arresting Sunni politicians. So the minority Sunni population began to hate him and fear him. 

So ISIS returned to Iraq and they began selling themselves as the Sunni champion against Maliki. And they gradually grew strong -- strong enough to challenge the Iraqi government in the country's second-largest city, Mosul. So when 800 ISISsoldiers challenged 30,000 Iraqi army troops in the mostly Sunni city, the Iraqi troops, most of them, put down their arms and ran. 

This was a group that was largely Sunni. They simply refused to fight and die for a Shiite government that they didn't think cared for them. That ultimately is where ISIS's real power comes from. They get weapons and they get money from the territory they control and they have skilled fighters, but they're facing a government that's widely unpopular among Sunnis. 

Only a tiny percentage of Sunni actively support ISIS's goals, but at least for now, they appear willing to let ISIS operate in their territory freely because they see it as an alternative to a Shiite government they despise. But ISIS wants to do much more than that. They want to set up a new state that reaches up into both Iraq and Syria, one that governs according to a medieval interpretation of Islamic law. And so Iraq's Sunni population is caught between two terrible forces: A Shia majority that violently represses them to hold on to political power, and a theocratic militia that will kill them if they step too far into modernity. 

ISIS and India relations

The latest challenge that has emerged in the Middle East is of the Islamic State (henceforth referred to of the Gulf War-I. as the ISIS). To understand the origin of ISIS, we need to trace back to the period of the Gulf In 1990, when the Gulf War-I began, in Iraq, Saddam Hussein used chemical and biological weapons against his adversaries. The US supported Kuwait in the war, but it failed to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq as the war ended. As the UN-imposed sanctions against Iraq and isolated it, it was believed that a weak Iraq under Saddam Hussein would lead to a palace coup against Saddam and would-be a subsequent regime change.                            

In 1998, the US passed a law signed by Clinton authorizing 97 billion US dollars to replace the regime of Saddam with a democratic regime in Iraq. The task was entrusted to the CIA. However, the 9/11 attacks changed all equations. In 2001, the US President was empowered with the Authorized Use of Military Force (AVMF) to declare a war on Afghanistan and Iraq for which the US President would not require authorization from the UN Security Council. This led to the US invasion of Afghanistan in 2001and of Iraq in 2003. After the end of the Gulf War, the UN had instructed Iraq to remove and dismantle all its chemical and biological weapons. Iraq had not complied with the directions of the UN. 

In November 2001, UN Weapon Inspector Hans Blix informed the Security Council that Iraq is in possession of weapons of mass destruction. On 20 March 2003, after the failure of Iraq to dismantle the weapons of weapons mass destruction, the US invaded Iraq and launched Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Saddam was captured in December 2003 and hanged subsequently after court's verdicts. After Saddam's capture, the ground was prepared in Iraq for democratic elections. Before we move further, we have to keep a few things in mind. Firstly, the Muslims living in Iraq are Shia and are in majority.

Secondly, Saddam was a Sunni Muslim. The situation in Iraq under Saddam was that the Shia-majority nation was controlled by a Sunni minority and a Sunni leader. When the US invaded Iraq, the US was determined to side with the Shias as they constituted the majority. This created an inherent sense of betrayal and a rising number of Sunni extremist groups who unleashed violence and chaos in Iraq. 

One such prominent group was Jamaat al-Tawhid Wa-i-Jihad (JTD). It was founded in 1999 by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi in Jordan. Al-Zarqawi developed proximity to Al-Qaeda's Osama Bin Laden in due course of time. In 2004, the JTWJ performed bay'ah and joined Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI). The commonality of Al-Qaeda and JWT in Iraq was the deep anti-Shia sentiment

In 2006, Al-Zarqawi took steps to bring other pro-Sunni, anti-Shia groups fighting in Iraq under a uniform banner and succeeded in knitting the organizations under Majlis Shura-al-Mujahideen (MSM).

Al-Zarqawi was killed in the same year in a US airstrike. He was succeeded by Al-Masri, with the Al- Qaeda in Iraq now transformed into Islamic State in Iraq (ISI). Abu Ayyub al-Masri announced that the new goal of ISI was to capture the territory of Iraq which had passed into the hands of Nour Al Maliki (the Shia ruler who assumed power after elections in 2005 in Iraq). Al-Masri clarified that the goal of ISI is to establish Sharia in Iraq.

The ISI began to capture the lands of the Anbar province in Iraq where Sunni disenchantment with Shias was very high. The US forces in Iraq in 2007 began to take the help of Shawat al-Anbar to tackle ISI.

As the US used Shawat al-Anbar, they began to successfully wipe out ISI. In 2010, al-Masri died and was succeeded by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Al-Baghdadi began to rework the structure of the Islamic State of Iraq. He decided that the group needs to broaden its thinking and reach. Al-Baghdadi repositioned the group, shifted base to Syria, and renamed the group as the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL). 

The shifting of ISIL in Syria upset the Al-Qaeda in Syria fighting against the Assad government and they decided to split from ISIL. Al-Baghdadi, on 21 June 2014, announced a new goal of ISIS or ISIL that is the establishment of a Caliphate once again in the Islamic world, followed by its establishment in the rest of the world later. Al-Baghdadi, on 29 June 2014, designated himself as the Caliph Ibrahim. ISIS has vowed affiliation to the Salafi-Jihadi ideology.

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