History of Terrorism in Kashmir | The Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) | Hizbul Mujahideen (HM) and Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF)

History of Terrorism in Kashmir

Hizbul Mujahideen (HM) and 
Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF)

A Pakistani militant outfit leader Syed Salahuddin too fuelled the protestors through his group, known as the Hizbul Mujahideen (HM), which had been originally founded by Muhammad Ahsan Dar. 

The HM group mobilized Abdul Hamid Sheikh, Ashfaq Majeed Wani, Javed Ahmed Mir, and Yasin Malik and formed the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF).

As the MUF cadres were suppressed, they began to cross over to Pakistan for support. In 1979, the USSR had invaded Afghanistan. To contain the Soviets, the US began to take help from Pakistan. The CIA had provided arms, ammunition, and money to the ISI to train Mujahideens to fight the Soviets and create an enormous amount of resistance to the Soviet rule in Afghanistan. 

In 1989, as the Soviet rule ended, Pakistan's ISI started developing confidence about the fact that a successfully trained Mujahideen campaign could also be launched in Kashmir.

The 1987 elections

The 1987 elections and the suppression of MUF had given Pakistan a fertile ground to fuel unrest in the valley. After the elections of 1987, when the MUF cadres reach Pakistan for support, the ISI began to train them with arms and ammunition. 

In 1993, 26 social and religious organisations united to form the All Parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC). The APHC began to raise the call for the independence of Kashmir. The US too had given tacit support to the APHC leaders in India and it was financially backed by the CIA.

Read The Kashmir Dispute | Article 370 | India-Pakistan Relation 

Taliban, India and IC 814

The exodus of Kashmiri Pandits 

As the JKLF received support and training from Pakistan, in 1989, they attacked a Hindu Kashmiri Pandit, Tika Lal Taploo. The assassination created tremendous fear among the Kashmiri Pandits. The HM too vocally began to assert that Kashmiri Pandits immediately leave the valley. Kashmir, which had been home to Sufi Islam and Hinduism, who had always coexisted peacefully, witnessed communal crisis. 

As violence against the Hindus unfolded in the valley in 1990, the central government decided to appoint Jagmohan Malhotra as the new governor of Kashmir. The exodus and ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Pandits continued in the early 1990s as the ISI succeeded, through the JKLF and HM, in arming the local population and inciting revolt against the Indian state for the sake of Kashmiri self-determination. 

From 1990 to 1994, the Indian security forces launched a massive campaign against the insurgents and terrorists in the valley. The Indian forces launched a ruthless campaign to suppress the insurgents with an intention to break the organisations from within. By 1996, the HM and JKLF were severely weakened.

The Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT)

The Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) had been created by Hafiz Saeed and was active against the Soviets through Jihad in Afghanistan. Through the support of the ISI, the LeT started turning its attention towards Kashmir from the 1990s. 

The ISI successfully transformed the LeT into a proxy group against India. The LeT is ideologically linked to the Ahl-i-Hadith interpretations of Islam. Since the 1990s, the ISI of Pakistan launched a campaign that sought to infiltrate Kashmir with the Ahl-i-Hadith ideology. 

The Ahl-i-Hadith interpretation is interlinked with the Wahabism school of Islam, which is one of the most orthodox and stringent forms of Islam practised in the world. Since the 1990s, attempts have thus been made to Wahabise the Kashmiri society, which has always practised a softer, Sufi ideology-oriented Islam.

Post a Comment

If you have any doubt comment me.

Previous Post Next Post