Delhi and Riyadh Declarations : India and Saudi Arabia ties

As the cold war ended, firstly India began to initiate warmer relations with the USA. In 1998 after conducting the nuclear test test, it emerged as a confident player. The power assertion of India began when, by 2000s, its Economy began to grow. Tectonic events in the post-Cold War era brought India and Saudi Arabia closer rain. The first event of considerable impact was the 9/11 in the US. After 9/11, when the US invaded Afghanistan and Iraq, it created immense tension in Saudi Arabia. Iraq was under Saddam, who was a Sunni. He had kept the neighbouring Iran (a Shia-dominated state) under check. Saudi now feared that after the deposition of Saddam, there would be no more checks on Iran, which would in turn fuel Iranian hegemonic ambitions. 
The subsequent rise of a hardliner Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in Iran strengthened the fears of Saudi Arabia. In order to counter such fears, the then King of Saudi, Abdullah, decided to forge regional partnerships. In 2006, King Abdullah visited India. This visit marked a new chapter in Saudi Arabian foreign policy as Saudi decided to now strengthen its relations beyond the US. In 2006, King Abdullah was made the Chief Guest of the Republic Day parade celebrations. India and Saudi Arabia, in 2006, concluded the Delhi Declaration. This was the first-ever comprehensive document bilaterally signed to envisage a deep relationship between the two states. The components are explained below.

India-Saudi Arabía Delhi Declaration of 2006


  1. Agricultural research
  2. Cooperation on terrorism and mechanisms to curb it
  3. Trade and commerce
  4. Energy cooperation
  5. Investments
  6. Biotechnology
  7. Tourism
  8. Healthcare-
  9. Youth Exchanges

As the Delhi Declaration of 2006 opened up the cooperation, Indian PM Dr Manmohan Singh visited Riyadh in 2010. The aim of the visit was to build cooperation on a platform beyond the Delhi Declaration. During PM's visit to Riyadh, not only did he conclude the Riyadh Declaration but the partnership was now taken to the level of strategic partnership. The components are explained below.

Riyadh Declaration of strategic partnership between India and Saudi Arabia-2010


  1. Space
  2. cooperation
  3. Renewable energy
  4. Extradition treaty
  5. Transfer of sentenced persons
  6. Economic cooperation Investment promotion
  7. Hydrocarbons and oil diplomacy
  8. IT
  9. Intelligence sharing
  10. Science and technology cooperation

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