1962 war India China war

1962 Conflict

In June 1962, the Indian army had established a forward post in Namka Chu river and named that post as Dhola. This is despite the fact that this post on South Bank of Namka Chu river was in Che Jong area of Gina, while Dhola was a mountain near the post. China objected to the post saying that the post is North of McMahon Line inside China and India has no right in this area. India insisted that the post was in proper Dhola region only and not in China.

As the Chinese objected, the GOC of army in the area suggested that the post be relocated to Thagala Ridge. By the time Army HQ granted the permission, Chinese established the post in Thagala Ridge. The Chinese were surprised to see violation of 1959 idea of not patrolling and establishing posts by India. On 13 September 1962, Chinese troops made an announcement from other side of Namka Chu river that India retreat from the post. As India ignored the advice, on 20 September 1962, Chinese dropped a grenade to attack the Indian post. The grenade was thrown by China to compel India to subdue and withdraw by inculcating a sense of fear. The government decided to respond to the grenade attack by deciding to evict China from Namka Chu. The Indian side sent a patrol team on 9 October 1962 near Namka Chu. 

As the patrol team reached close, China vehemently fired back on India. The entire dream and assumption of forward policy collapsed. Nehru was in Colombo and from there he addressed the press asserting that India has ordered the army to evict the Chinese from Namka Chu. This was perceived to be aggressive by China. Has decided to teach a painful military lesson to India. On 20 October 1962, Chinese attacked from Namka Chu and almost reached Tezpur, Bomdila and Tawang. The Chinese launched attacks on Western front at Galwan post bear Daulat Beg Oldi. On 24 October 1962, Zhou Enlai told Nehru to settle the border peacefully. He urged that till the time both parties do not settle the border peacefully, neither of the sides should undertake patrolling up to 20 km of LAC. 

The term LAC was used for the first time by China here. Zhou Enlai asserted that LAC meant the customary line in Western and Central sectors and Eastern Line under McMahon Line. Nehru insisted that China goes back to its position of 8 September 1962- the position where it was before it had occupied Namka Chu post by crossing the river. Zhou rejected this. The Chinese by November 1962 almost reached Sela pass, Tawang and were not far from Tezpur. India asked the US to help. President Kennedy dispatched an aircraft carrier to Bay of Bengal and squadrons of the US air force were dispatched. The Chinese on 21 November 1962 declared a unilateral ceasefire and retreated to 20 km of the LAC. China did not demand Indian retreat but asserted that China may strike back if India fires in China. Nehru did not impede the implementation of the ceasefire and the conflict came to an end. The forward policy of India met with the counter-forward policy of China led to the end of the conflict.

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