China Standoff : Importance of Pangong Tso Lake and Galwan Valley , China's presence in Ladakh

Why in news: China has erected around 100 tents around Pangong Tso lake and Galwan Valley from 5 may 2020 and brought in heavy equipment for construction of bunkers.Indian troops are also resorting to aggressive patrolling in sensetive areas.Mediation of America between India China dispute.
                     Pangong tso lake 

The images circulating on social media are of Ngari Gunda airport in Tibet ,which is around 200 kilometres from Pangong tso lake.

For now top commanders of Indian army have reviewed the situation along LAC .

History of Aksai chin and 1962 war

The British and Tibet signed the Simla Agreement in 1914, where Henry McMahon promo the drawing of borders according to a plan.the McMahon Line was drawn to demarcate borders. However, all Chinese government subsequently till date have refused to accept the Simla Agreement. The McMahon Line demarcated the Eastern Indo-Tibet border but there was no such frontier in the West in 1947. India continued to claim Aksai Chin as a part of India in the Western Sector despite having no administrative or military presence in Aksai Chin. China used the Aksai Chin territory, which was a part of Dogra kingdom in Kashmir, in 1950 to invade Tibet.
Further, in 1953, India consolidated its position in the Eastern Sector by controlling Tawang, which was a territory south of the McMahon Line.

After the Panchsheel Agreement in 1954, the Ministry of external affairs was informed of the need to have a new map with Aksai Chin in Western Sector declared as a part of India and in the Eastern Sector along McMahon Line. However, the new maps were not to have references to any line and ensure that India left no undemarcated territory.

In 1957 China established a road in Aksai Chin. This road was vital to take infrastructural equipment and logistics from PLA to Tibet. As this road was established, it created a storm. In 1960, Zhou told Nehru that China would give up its claims on Arunachal if India gives up claim on the Western Sector.Nehru rejected the proposal, aggravating Zhou's fear that India wants to undermine China's control of Tibet.
From 1961 ,nehru began to encourage Indian troops to go up to high altitude and assert their claim.finally Chinese retaliated aggressively in October 1962 in eastern sector almost upto bhramhputra plain.after a month Chinese declared ceased fire and maintain status quo.

      Disputed area between India and China

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